We live in an age where humanity, through science, has solved most problems. But science cannot predict the future. What is scientific is what the falsity can be demonstrated. Intellectual and moral relativism is the most serious threats to our society.
Pre-modern[ edit ] The origins of philosophy of science trace back to Plato and Aristotle  who distinguished the forms of approximate and exact reasoning, set out the threefold scheme of abductivedeductiveand inductive inference, and also analyzed reasoning by analogy.
The eleventh century Arab polymath Ibn al-Haytham known in Latin as Alhazen conducted his research in optics by way of controlled experimental testing and applied geometryespecially in his investigations into the images resulting from the reflection and refraction of light.
Roger Bacon —an English thinker and experimenter heavily influenced by al-Haytham, is recognized by many to be the father of modern scientific method. In this philosophy[,] propositions are deduced from the phenomena and rendered general by induction. The 19th century writings of John Stuart Mill are also considered important in the formation of current conceptions of the scientific method, as well as anticipating later accounts of scientific explanation.
Logical positivism Philosophy of science karl popper became popular among physicists around the turn of the 20th century, after which logical positivism defined the field for several decades.
Logical positivism accepts only testable statements as meaningful, rejects metaphysical interpretations, and embraces verificationism a set of theories of knowledge that combines logicismempiricismand linguistics to ground philosophy on a basis consistent with examples from the empirical sciences.
Seeking to overhaul all of philosophy and convert it to a new scientific philosophy,  the Berlin Circle and the Vienna Circle propounded logical positivism in the late s.
Thereby, only the verifiable was scientific and cognitively meaningful, whereas the unverifiable was unscientific, cognitively meaningless "pseudostatements"—metaphysical, emotive, or such—not worthy of further review by philosophers, who were newly tasked to organize knowledge rather than develop new knowledge.
Logical positivism is commonly portrayed as taking the extreme position that scientific language should never refer to anything unobservable—even the seemingly core notions of causality, mechanism, and principles—but that is an exaggeration. Talk of such unobservables could be allowed as metaphorical—direct observations viewed in the abstract—or at worst metaphysical or emotional.
Theoretical laws would be reduced to empirical laws, while theoretical terms would garner meaning from observational terms via correspondence rules. Mathematics in physics would reduce to symbolic logic via logicism, while rational reconstruction would convert ordinary language into standardized equivalents, all networked and united by a logical syntax.
A scientific theory would be stated with its method of verification, whereby a logical calculus or empirical operation could verify its falsity or truth. In the late s, logical positivists fled Germany and Austria for Britain and America.
The logical positivist movement became a major underpinning of analytic philosophy and dominated Anglosphere philosophy, including philosophy of science, while influencing sciences, into the s.
Yet the movement failed to resolve its central problems,    and its doctrines were increasingly assaulted.
Nevertheless, it brought about the establishment of philosophy of science as a distinct subdiscipline of philosophy, with Carl Hempel playing a key role.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions In the book The Structure of Scientific RevolutionsThomas Kuhn argued that the process of observation and evaluation takes place within a paradigm, a logically consistent "portrait" of the world that is consistent with observations made from its framing.
A paradigm also encompasses the set of questions and practices that define a scientific discipline. He characterized normal science as the process of observation and "puzzle solving" which takes place within a paradigm, whereas revolutionary science occurs when one paradigm overtakes another in a paradigm shift.
More than one logically consistent construct can paint a usable likeness of the world, but there is no common ground from which to pit two against each other, theory against theory. Each paradigm has its own distinct questions, aims, and interpretations.
Neither provides a standard by which the other can be judged, so there is no clear way to measure scientific progress across paradigms. For Kuhn, the choice of paradigm was sustained by rational processes, but not ultimately determined by them.
The choice between paradigms involves setting two or more "portraits" against the world and deciding which likeness is most promising.Karl Popper described the demarcation problem as the “key to most of the fundamental problems in the philosophy of science” (Popper , 42).
He rejected verifiability as a criterion for a scientific theory or hypothesis to be . Karl Popper, an austro-british philosopher, invented the falsifiability concept as a criterion of demarcation between science and pseudoscience. Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science. Karl Popper () was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century.
He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the .
Science as Falsification. The following excerpt was originally published in Conjectures and Refutations ().. by Karl R. Popper. hen I received the list of participants in this course and realized that I had been asked to speak to philosophical colleagues I thought, after some hesitation and consolation, that you would probably prefer me to speak about those problems which interests me most.
Philosophy of Science - Karl Popper Karl Popper presents a way of perceiving science that is appealing for a number of reasons, he argued a few simple and outstanding claims with which he attempted to revolutionize the way we see and practice science - Philosophy of Science - Karl Popper introduction.
Karl Popper: Political Philosophy. Among philosophers, Karl Popper () is best known for his contributions to the philosophy of science and epistemology. Most of his published work addressed philosophical problems in the natural sciences, especially physics; and Popper himself acknowledged that his primary interest was nature and .