Photosynthesis converts the light energy obtained from the sun into chemical energy of sugar and oxygen, whereas cellular respiration is a biochemical process by which cells obtain energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are both key processes for life. Oxygen is a by-product of Photosynthesis and is important to all living beings.
Cellular respiration Adenosine triphosphate is made of the organic molecule adenosine bonded to a chain of three phosphate groups. ATP is an organic phosphate molecule that is the principal source of energy for cellular works.
Animals and plants produce and store ATP in the process of cellular respiration, but plants also do during photosynthesis. Cellular respiration is the process during which glucose is broken down to provide energy to cells.
It happens in both animals and plants, and it can be divided in 3 stages: Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and Electron transport and chemiosmosis. This compound then enters the citric acid cycle to complete the breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide.
The net yield of Glycolysis is of 2 ATP. During electron transport chains, electron carriers alternate between reduced and oxidized states, passing on electrons to more electronegative neighbours.
It begins when an electron carrier, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH passes electrons acquired during the first stages to membrane-bound electron carriers Cohen,the first one being flavoprotein, and the last one of the chain being a cytochrome that passes electrons to oxygen that will form water with hydrogen ions from inside and outside the cell.
The free energy released during each step is stored in mitochondria to be used in ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphate group. This is done through oxidative phosphorylation, powered by a redox equation.
Along the electron transport chain, more protons accumulate outside the membrane which results in a proton gradient. Cohen, ATP synthase is a protein complex with four main parts that contains a proton channel that allows re-entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix.
ATP synthases uses energy stored in the form of the proton ion gradient to drive the synthesis of ATP which is called chemiosmosis. It provides most of the energy necessary for cellular processes to animals though fermentation that makes ATP by lactic acid fermentation in muscle cells in the absence of oxygen only by using substrate-level phosphorylation of glycolysis can also provide some energy.
Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplasts of plants that carry out photosynthetic phosphorylation, which is the conversion of light energy into ATP, without the participation of respiration.
In chloroplasts, light reaction occurs in the thylakoids occupied by two photosystems that move electrons across the thylakoid membrane. Allen, These are Photosystem II PS IIwhich functions first and is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of nm, its associated reaction-center chlorophyll a is called P, and Photosystem I PS Ibest at absorbing a wavelength of nm, its reaction-center chlorophyll a is called P The flow of electrons through photosystems and other molecular components into the thylakoid membrane is called linear electron flow.
As electron falls back to the ground state, another electron is raised to an excited state. The energy is passed to other pigment molecules until it reaches the P in photosystem 2.
An enzyme splits water molecule in 2hydrogen ions released into the thykaloid space and electrons reduce P Electrons pass from the primary electron acceptor of PS2 to PS1 via an electron transport chain that has the same components, such as cytochrome complex as the cellular respiration chain.
Electrons cycle back to the cytochrome complex and then continue on to a P in the photosystem 1. It does not require water oxidation and oxygen evolution, and works with light of wavelength beyond that required for complete photosynthesis.
During respiration, energy is released when electrons and hydrogen are transported. Electrons lose potential energy as they go down the electron transport chain towards oxygen to form water, and the energy is then used to synthesize ATP.
However, both of these processes use different sources of energy, mitochondria use chemical energy from food while chloroplasts transform light energy into chemical energy used for the synthesis of ATP.
In conclusion, animals and plants use processes that are very much alike to produce and store energy in the form of ATP.
Cellular respiration is common to both plants and animals, producing ATP by substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation. Essay UK - http:Energy is needed for the functions that organisms perform, such as growth, movement, waste removal, and reproduction.
It is the only requirement for life that is supplied from a source outside the biosphere. Essay: Cellular respiration Adenosine triphosphate is made of the organic molecule adenosine bonded to a chain of three phosphate groups. ATP is an organic phosphate molecule that is the principal source of energy for cellular works.
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monstermanfilm.comcs is one of the most-used science websites. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION: Photosynthesis generates organic molecules and oxygen used by the mitochondria .
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes by which living things obtain needed substances. They both consume and create the same substances (water, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) but in different ways.